The process by which seeds of a plant grow to become new plants is called Seed Germination.
Seeds need enough space in the soil, water, warmth, air and nutrition to germinate.
They do not need sunlight to germinate.
For the seeds of a plant to germinate in soil, they must find the right place in soil where there is enough space, nutrition, water and warmth to grow.
To get this, they must move away from the mother plant. Such a movement of the seeds away from the mother plant, for the purpose of germination is called Seed Dispersal.
- Dispersal by Wind: Seeds of some plants are carried away by the blowing wind. Ex. Milkweed, Sycamore, Indian Elm.
- Dispersal by Water: Seeds of some plants that grow near or in the water get carried away by the flowing water. Ex. Coconut tree, Indian Oak
- Dispersal by Animals: Seeds of some plants stick to the body parts of
that come near them for
or shelter. These animals carry them away to different places.
Sometimes, people collect the fruits and seeds of plants and carry them to different places. Ex. Mango, Guava, Apple
- Dispersal by Explosion: Fruits of some plants become dry and explode to send the seeds far away. Ex. Lady's Finger, Touch Me Not, Squirting Cucumber
Adaptations are features of living things that help them to live comfortably in particular conditions.
- Terrestrial plants are plants that grow on land. Ex: Banyan tree, Mango tree.
Some terrestrial plants live in dry deserts while other grow in wet forests, still others live in extremely cold places.
- Aquatic plants are plants that grow in ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. Ex: Lotus plant, Water Lily.
Some aquatic plants grow under the surface of water, others float on the surface while still others have leaves that grow outside the water.
- Plants of the coastal regions have to adapt to strong winds, sandy soils, hot sun, very high humidity(water vapour) in the air and heavy rainfall. Ex: Coconut palm
- Plants of the rain forests are adapted to grow in warm and wet conditions.
A smooth stem, leaves with a waxy surface and drip tips help plants grow in rain forests. Ex: Pitcher plant
- Plants of the deciduous forests have thick stems, thin and broad leaves and during winter, the trees shed their leaves. Ex: Jackfruit plant.
- Plants of the deserts have long roots that spread to the surface. They have spines on the stem and few, small or no leaves. Ex: Cactus plant.
- Mangrove Trees have slilt roots that support them and they take in air directly from the atmosphere. Ex: Eoeak
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